Advocacy– The act of supporting or arguing for a cause or an individual.

Baseline – The picture of what things look like before you begin your project. For example, you might try to gather baseline information about community attitudes towards domestic violence before you start your project. A baseline gives you an idea of where you might want to go, and it gives you a way to track the effects of your work. You can compare results from the end of your project to your baseline results to see how far you’ve come.

Bystander Behaviors –Refer to the actions of an individual who is present at an event, or aware of someone’s actions. A bystander may intervene in the situation.

Capacity Building – The development, promotion, and support of an organization’s core skills and capabilities, such as leadership, management, finance and fundraising, programs and evaluation, in order to build the organization’s effectiveness and sustainability.

Coalition – A partnership between two or more parties, organizations, agencies, groups, or individuals, that work together towards mutually determined goals. The building of a coalition involves negotiating goals, ground rules, commitment, and course of action.

Collaboration– A process through which individual entities jointly address an issue by finding solutions that are owned by all the stakeholders.

Community Education – Efforts and activities performed to increase public awareness about a topic.
Can also refer to education programs that are community-based, community-directed, and intended primarily for the members of the local community.

Community Engagement – Includes identifying community assets and resources, involving community and participating in the learning process, working together to gather knowledge, analyze findings, and develop and implement a plan. A community engagement strategy looks to make changes in a community that are widely felt and that reflect the wishes of the people who are directly affected.

Community Organizing – Community organizing can be a tool used within an overall community engagement strategy. Community organizing is a process of supporting constituents most affected by a problem to define the issues critical to their community, determine the strategies, and lead the action to address their community issues. Involves listening, being responsive to the community and helping community residents develop the skills necessary to take action. At the heart of community organizing are inclusion, ownership, relationship building and leadership development.

Ecological Model– A framework that illustrates the need for a comprehensive approach to address violence at the individual, relationship, community, institutional, and societal levels.

  1. Individual level influences are personal factors that increase the likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator. Examples include isolation, attitudes, and beliefs that support violence, and a family history of violence. Prevention strategies at this level are often designed to promote conditions, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that support intimate partnerships based on mutual respect, equality, and trust. Specific approaches may include mentoring and education.
  2. Interpersonal relationship level influences are factors that increase risk due to relationships with peers, partners, and family members. Prevention strategies at this level may include education and peer programs designed to promote intimate partnerships based on mutual respect, equality, and trust.
  3. Community level influences are factors that increase risk based on individual experiences and relationships with community and social environments such as schools, workplaces, and neighborhoods. Prevention strategies at this level are typically designed to impact the climate, processes and policies in a given system. Campaigns are often used at this level to foster community climates that promote intimate partnerships based on mutual respect, equality, and trust. Collaboration is key.
  4. Societal level influences are larger factors that influence violence, such as gender inequality, religious or cultural belief systems, societal norms, and economic or social policies. Prevention strategies at this level typically involve collaborations by multiple partners to promote social norms, policies, and laws that support gender equity and foster intimate partnerships based on mutual respect, equality, and trust.

Indicator – Something that shows that progress is happening in your work.

Intermediate Outcomes – The measurable changes that need to happen as your work moves forward to pave the way for your long-term outcomes.

LogicModel– A format (flowchart) often used to guide program/project planning and evaluation. It describes the flow of inputs through the systems and interventions to the resulting outputs, as well as the desired short or long-term outcomes

Long-Term Outcomes – The measurable changes you are working to see overall, as the result of many different activities.

Measure – A way of collecting information to find out whether your program is reaching its goals.

Outcome Evaluation – The “so what?” evaluation—you did all this work, so what did you get? What happened as a result? Measures the impact your program is having on reaching your defined outcomes.
Primary Prevention– Approaches that take place before violence has occurred to prevent initial perpetration or victimization. Primary prevention focuses on stopping violence before it occurs using a comprehensive, community-based approach to changing the societal factors that allow violence to occur. Primary prevention programming is long-term, comprehensive, & strategic.

  • Long-term
    • Goals that aim to reduce the likelihood of domestic violence now and for generations to come. This happens by changing the social factors that influence the occurrence of domestic violence.
    • Processes that include community learning and planning.
    • Activities with more focus on approaches like seeking policy change or holding multi-session education programs than on one-time presentations or activities.
  • Comprehensive Prevention Programming: Uses multiple approaches to address a number of factors. Engages diverse and multiple partners. Activities may work at more than one level of spectrum of prevention. For example: a media campaign coordinated with stakeholder train-the-trainers, and a community event)
  • Strategic Prevention Programming: Activities that are planned to meet a set of defined outcomes.

Process Evaluation – The “how did it go?” or “how is it going?” evaluation. Measures the steps you are using in your work.

Protective Factors– Identifiable conditions that may help one avoid interpersonal violence. For example, the existence of healthy beliefs and clear expectations about individuals and relationships. At the community level, these beliefs and expectations would be explicit, demonstrated, and valued, contributing to an environment that supports healthy relationships.

PublicHealth– A social and political concept aimed at improving health, prolonging life, and improving the quality of life among whole populations.

Qualitative Information – Qualitative information measures the how and why of something. This
kind of information is gathered in an open-ended way so people can give details in their own words.

Quantitative Information – Quantitative information measures the amount of something. For example, the number of people who chose one answer or another on a survey, the number of events, the number of pamphlets distributed, etc.

Risk Factors– Identifiable factors, conditions, or situations associated with a increased danger of
interpersonal violence. For example, a family or community history of violence. At the community level, an example may be little public response to violent incidents, images of violent families and widespread portrayal of the community as violent. (Ex: communities referred to as the “bad” side of town, beliefs that domestic violence is family business, etc.)

Risk Reduction – Efforts to control identified risk factors, thereby reducing the likelihood or impact of risk. An example of risk reduction is a presentation on teen dating violence warning signs, or identifying dangerous situations or behaviors.

Secondary Prevention – Aims to prevent recurrence or intensifying of violence once it has occurred, and often targets high-risk or affected individuals or groups

Short Term Outcomes – Outcomes are the results you are aiming for—the measurable goals you want to reach. Short-term outcomes are answers to the question, “What do we want the result of our work to be in the near future?” The measurable changes that need to happen before your intermediate and long-term outcomes. For example, the creation of a community action plan (the short-term outcome of a community dialogue) needs to happen before community efforts that increase awareness about the root causes of domestic violence (intermediate) and before reaching a reduction in domestic violence in the community (long-term).

Social Change
Any change in social behaviors that causes a change in a society or transformation of its social structure.

Social Norm
In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. The shared belief of what is normal and acceptable shapes and enforces the actions of people in a society. The very fact that others in one’s society follow the norm may give them a reason to follow it.

Spectrum of Prevention – A tool for identifying the different levels at which comprehensive prevention programming should take place.

Target Population refers to the identified group whose knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors prevention efforts seek to change. Members of the target population are the focus, but not necessarily the target of every activity. For example: if middle-school age youth are the target population, activities that target parents, teachers, youth group leaders, and other adults who interact with middle-school youth, may be effective ways of influencing the target population.